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Renaissance and Medieval Food Recipes

Meat Dishes


Mete of Cypree  
Bruet of Savoy
Autre Vele en Bokenade
Beefy-Stewed
Stewed Mutton
Bourbelier of Wild Pig
Cormarye
Mortress of Flesh
Fylettes en Galentyne
The Flesh of Veal
Alows de Beef or de Motoun
Cow's Meat
Tartlettes
Chopped Liver
Picadinho de Carne de Vaca: Beef Hash
Corat
Egredouncye
Boiled Meats Ordinary
Pottage with Whole Herbs

 

Mete of Cypree

Curye on Inglysch p. 55 (Diuersa Cibaria no. 56)

Vor mete of Cypree. Vurst nim of alemauns, & hwyte of heom one pertie, ah hwyte summe hole & + e o+ ur do to grinden. So+ + en nim + e hole alemauns & corf heom to quartes; so+ + en nim fat bro+ & swete of porc o+ ur of v+ ur vlehs; tempre + in alemauns & so+ + en drauh out + i milke & so+ + e do hit in an veyre crouhe. So+ + en nim + e braun of chapouns o+ ur of hennen o+ ur of porc, & ef noed is let hakken, & so+ + en do in a morter + at hit beo wel igronden, & so+ + en nym hit & do hit to + e milke. So+ + en nim blod of cycchen o+ ur of o+ ur beste, & so+ + en grind hit & do hit to + e vlesche. So+ + en do + e crouhe to + e vure & seo+ hit wel; & so+ + en nym gode poudre of spices: gynger, kanel, maces, quibibes, and so zeo+ hit wi+ + ilke metee. So+ + en nim wyn & sucre & make me an stronge soupe. Do hit in + ilke to zeo+ en. So+ + en nym flour of ris & do a quantite + at hit beo wel + ikke. So+ + en nim + in alemauns icoruen & frie heom wel in grece; so+ + en nim gynger & par yt wel & heuw hit. So+ + en nym + in alemauns yfried & + i gynger to + e dressur, & so do hit to + ilke mete, & so+ + en nym saffron & colore wel + i mete: & gef + at to gode men vor god mete & riche.

Version with modernized English: For meat of Cyprus. First take of almonds, & blanche of them one part, the white should be whole & the other do to grind. Then take the whole almonds & carve them to quarters; then take fat broth & suet of pork or of other flesh; temper thine almonds & then draw out thy milk & then do it in a fair crock. Then take the meat of capons or of hens or of pork, & if need is let it be hacked, & then do in a mortar that it be well ground, & then take it & do it to the milk. Then take blood of chicken or of other beast, & then grind it & do it to the flesh. Then do the crock to the fire & seethe it well; & then take good powder of spices: ginger, canel, maces, cubebs, and so seethe it with that meat. Then take wine & sugar & make me a strong soup. Do it in that to seethe. Then take flour of rice & do a quantity that it be well thick. Then take thine almonds carved & fry them well in grease; then take ginger & pare it well & hew it. Then take thine almonds yfried & thy ginger to the dresser, & so do it to this meat, & then take saffron & color well thy meat: & give that to good men for good meat & rich.

1/3 c unblanched almonds
2 T blanched, slivered almonds
1 c fat broth (canned chicken)
lard
3/4 lb pork (or chicken)
(blood)
1/8 t ginger
1/4 t cinnamon
1/8 t mace
1/4 t cubebs (measured whole)
4 t wine
4 t sugar
2 T rice flour
1/2 t grease: lard
1/2 T fresh ginger root

Grind unblanched almonds in food processor. Add 1/2 c of the broth, run the food processor, strain out liquid, put back residue; add another 1/4 c broth, repeat; add another 1/4 c, repeat. Grind meat and add to liquid. Put on the heat; grind cubebs and add spices. Cook about 10 minutes, stirring frequently; add wine and sugar. Cook another couple of minutes, add rice flour; cook a minute and remove from heat. While meat is cooking, fry the slivered almonds in grease, cut ginger into very little pieces. When meat is done, sprinkle almonds and ginger over and serve.

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Bruet of Savoy

Du Fait de Cuisine no. 3

And again, another potage, that is a bruet of Savoy: to give understanding to him who will be charged with making this bruet, to take his poultry and the meat according to the quantity which he is told that he should make, and make ready his poultry and set to cook cleanly; and meat according to the quantity of potage which he is told to make, and put to boil with the poultry; and then take a good piece of lean bacon in a good place [a good cut?] and clean it well and properly, and then put it to cook with the aforesaid poultry and meat; and then take sage, parsley, hyssop, and marjoram, and let them be very well washed and cleaned, and make them into a bunch without chopping and all together, and then put them to boil with the said potage and with the meat; and according to the quantity of the said broth take a large quantity of parsley well cleaned and washed, and brayed well and thoroughly in a mortar; and, being well brayed, check that your meat is neither too much or too little cooked and salted; and then according to the quantity of broth have white ginger, grains of paradise, and a little pepper; and put bread without the crust to soak with the said broth so that there is enough to thicken it; and being properly soaked, let it be pounded and brayed with the said parsley and spices, and let it be drawn and strained with the said broth; and put in wine and verjuice according as it is necessary. And all of the things aforesaid should be put in to the point where there is neither too little nor too much. And then, this done, put it to boil in a large, fair, and clean pot. And if it happens that the potage is too green, put in a little saffron, and this will make the green bright. And when it is to be arranged for serving, put your meat on the serving dishes and the broth on top.

3 chicken leg quarters, cut up
meat: 1 1/4 lb veal, cut in slices
4 slices bacon
(1/8 t salt)
1 stalk fresh sage = 2.5 g
1/2 t hyssop in tea infuser (or 1 stalk)
2 stalks parsley = 6 g
3 stalks marjoram = 2 g
3/4 c more parsley (before chopping)
1 t ground ginger
1 t grains of paradise
1/4 t pepper
4 slices white bread
2 T wine
verjuice: 3/4 t vinegar
(8 threads saffron)

Enough water to cover, tie sage, parsley, and marjoram with string. Cut off about half the fat from the bacon; cut the remainder in small pieces. Simmer for about 1/2 hour. Drain off broth, put bread in broth; grind up rest of spices and more parsley. Mix about 1 c broth with bread with spices, put through the strainer. Add wine and vinegar, boil about 10 minutes, serve.

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Autre Vele en Bokenade

Two Fifteenth Century p. 13/53

Take Vele, an Make it clene, and hakke it to gobettys, an sethe it; an take fat brothe, an temper up + ine Almaundys + at + ou hast y-grounde, an lye it with Flowre of Rys, and do + er-to gode powder of Gyngere, & Galyngale, Canel, Maces, Quybybis, and Oynonys y-mynsyd, & Roysonys of coraunce, & coloure yt wyth Safroun, and put + er-to + in Vele, & serue f.

1 lb stew veal
2 1/2 c water
1 1/2 c broth from the veal
4 oz almonds
2 T rice flour
1/2 t ginger
1/4 t galingale
1 1/2 t cinnamon
1/2 t mace
1/2 t cubebs


1 medium onion (about 2 oz)
5 T currants (about 1 3/4 oz)
8 threads saffron
1/2 t salt

Cook veal in water about 20 minutes; grind almonds, mix with the rest of the ingredients in a small pot (including the broth from the veal). Simmer about 20 minutes (veal is also still cooking). Combine sauce and veal.

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Beefy-Stewed

Two Fifteenth Century p. 6/52

Take faire beef of the ribs of the forequarters, and smite in fair pieces, and wash the beef into a fair pot; then take the water that the beef was sodden in, and strain it through a strainer and seethe the same water and beef in a pot, and let them boil together; then take canel, cloves, maces, grains of paradise, cubebs and onions y-minced, parsley and sage, and cast thereto, and let them boil together; and then take a loaf of bread, and stepe it with broth and vinegar, and then draw it through a strainer, and let it be still; and when it is near enough, cast the liquor thereto, but not too much, and then let boil once, and cast saffron thereto a quantity; then take salt and vinegar, and cast thereto, and look that it be poynant enough, and serve forth.

about 1 lb+ beef
3 medium onions
w1/4 c chopped parsley
1 bouillon cube
1/2 t cinnamon
1/4 t cloves
1 t sage
1/4 t mace
1/8 t whole grains of paradise (grind)
1/8 t whole cubebs (grind)
4 slices bread
pinch of saffron
1 t salt
vinegar

Add fresh water to cover and bouillon, bring to a boil, add parsley, onion, and spices. Simmer about 45 minutes. Meanwhile, put bread to soak in water and broth from the meat. At the end of 45 minutes mush up the bread and add that, the saffron and salt, bring to a boil and serve.

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Stewed Mutton

Two Fifteenth Century p. 72

Take faire Mutton that hath ben roste, or elles Capons, or suche o+ er flessh, and mynce it faire; put hit into a possenet, or elles bitwen ii siluer disshes; caste thereto faire parcely, And oynons small mynced; then caste there-to wyn, and a litull vynegre or vergeous, pouder of peper, Canel, salt and saffron, and lete it stue on + e faire coles, And + en serue hit forthe; if he have no wyne ne vynegre, take Ale, Mustard, and A quantite of vergeous, and do + is in + e stede of vyne or vinegre.

Wine Version

1 1/2 lb boned lamb
1/4 c parsley
2 medium onions (1 1/4 lb)
3/4 c wine
2 T vinegar
1 t pepper
1/2 t cinnamon
1 t salt
3 threads saffron
about 1/2 c water

Beer Version

Substitute 1 c dark beer and 1/2 t ground mustard for the wine. Substitute 4 T of verjuice for the vinegar if you have it.

Roast the lamb (before boning) at 350deg. for about 1 hour, then chop it into bite sized pieces. Chop onions fine. Combine all ingredients (and the juices from roasting the lamb) in a covered stew pot; use enough water so that there is just enough liquid to boil the meat in. Simmer it about 1/2 hour and serve it forth. It is good over rice

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Bourbelier of Wild Pig

Menagier p. M-23

First you must put it in boiling water, and take it out quickly and stick it with cloves; put it on to roast, and baste with a sauce made of spices, that is ginger, cinnamon, clove, grain, long pepper and nutmegs, mixed with verjuice, wine, and vinegar, and without boiling use it to baste; and when it is roasted, it should be boiled up together. And this sauce is called boar's tail, and you will find it later (and there it is thickened with bread: and here, not).

3 lb pork roast
about 60 whole cloves
1/4 t ginger
1/8 t cinnamon
1/8 t cloves
1/4 t grains of paradise
1/2 t pepper (rounded)
1/8 t nutmeg
(verjuice)
1 c wine
1/2 c vinegar

Preheat oven to 450deg. . Stud roast with whole cloves, baste with a mixture of the remaining ingredients, then put into oven. Immediately after putting it in, turn oven down to 350deg. . Roast meat 1 hour 45 minutes (for this size roast), basting every 15 minutes.

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Cormarye

Curye on Inglysch p. 109 (Forme of Cury no. 54)

Take colyaundre, caraway smale grounden, powdour of peper and garlec ygrounde, in rede wyne; medle alle + ise togyder and salt it. Take loynes of pork rawe and fle of the skyn, and pryk it wel with a knyf, and lay it in the sawse. Roost it whan + ou wilt, & kepe + at fallith + erfro in the rostyng and see+ it in a possynet with faire broth, and serue it forth wi+ + e roost anoon.

1 t ground coriander
1 t caraway (measured whole then ground)
1/2 t pepper
3 cloves garlic (.15 oz)
1 1/2 c red wine
1/2 t salt
1 1/2-3 lb lb pork roast
1/2 c chicken broth

Grind caraway in a mortar, then grind garlic with it (or use a spice grinder and a garlic press). Combine with coriander, pepper, wine and salt to make a marinade. Stick pork with a knife lots of times. Put pork in marinade and let it marinate over night, turning it once or twice. Heat oven to 450deg. , put in pork, turn down to 350deg. , roast until it is done (170deg. on a meat thermometer), basting with the marinade every ten or fifteen minutes. It should take about an hour and a half to two hours, depending on the size and shape of the roast; for larger roasts the rule is about half an hour/pound (if you use more than a three pound roast, you probably want to scale up the amount of marinade). Collect the drippings from the broth, combine with half their volume of chicken broth, simmer for at least 15 minutes and serve over the pork.

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Mortress of Flesh

Two Fifteenth Century p. 14/54

Take pork, and seethe it well; then take it up and pull away the swerde [skin], and pick out the bones, and hack it and grind it up small; then take the self broth, and temper it with ale; then take fair grated bread and do thereto, and seethe it and colour it with saffron, and lye it with yolks of eyroun, and make it even salt, and caste powder ginger, above on the dish.

1 lb+ pork roast
1 c ale (or beer)
2/3 c bread crumbs
3 threads of saffron
3 egg yolks
1 t salt
1 t ginger

Simmer a small pork roast for 45 minutes. Take it out. Separate the meat from the bones and fat. Chop it up small-if you have a large mortar mush it in that. Mix 2 c of the broth from the pork with ale and bread crumbs. Boil it, add saffron, mix in egg yolks to thicken. Add salt. Pour over the meat. Sprinkle powdered ginger over all and serve.

Two Fifteenth Century p. 11/53

Take Wyne an powder Canel, and draw it + orw a straynour, an sette it on + e fyre, and lette it boyle, an caste + er-to Clowes, Maces, an powder Pepyr; + an take smale Oynonys al hole, an par-boyle hem in hot watere, an caste + er-to, and let hem boyle to-gederys; + an take Brawn, an lesshe it, but nowt to + inne. An if it sowsyd be, lete it stepe a whyle in hot water tyl it be tendere, + an caste it to + e Sirip; + en take Sawnderys, an Vynegre, an caste + er-to, an lete it boyle alle to-gederys tyl it be y-now; + en take Gyngere, an caste + er-to, an so serue forth; but late it be nowt to + ikke ne to + inne, but as potage shulde be.

4 c wine
1/2 t cinnamon
1/2 t cloves
1/2 t mace
3/4 t pepper
1 lb = about 10 small onions
2 1/4 lb meat (pork)
1/2 t saunders
1/4 c vinegar
1/2 t ginger

Simmer onions in wine with spices (cinnamon, cloves, mace, pepper) for about 15 minutes, then add meat. Add saunders and vinegar. Cook together at moderate heat about one hour, then add ginger and remove from heat.

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Fylettes en Galentyne

Two Fifteenth Century p. 8/52 (GOOD)

Take fair pork, the fore quarter, and take off the skin; and put the pork on a fair spit, and roast it half enough; then take it off and smite it in fair pieces, and cast it on a fair pot; then take onions and shred them and peel them, and not too small, and fry in a pan of fair grease; then cast them in the pot to the pork; then take good broth of mutton or of beef, and cast thereto, and cast thereto powder pepper, canel, cloves, and mace, and let them boil well together; then take fair bread, and vinegar, and steep the bread with the same broth, and strain it on blood, with ale, or else with saunders, and salt, and let them boil enough, and serve it forth.

2 lb pork roast (i.e. about 1 1/2 lb meat)
2 big onions, sliced and fried in lard
5 c beef broth (water plus 5 bouillon cubes, or canned beef broth)
1/4 t pepper
1 t cinnamon
1/4 t cloves
1/4 t mace
1/4 c vinegar
1/4 loaf of bread = ~1 c torn up
small pinch of saunders
1/2 t at least of salt

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The Flesh of Veal

Platina book 6

From the haunch of veal take the lean meat and slice it into long thin slices; stroke them with the back of the knife so that they do not break; right away sprinkle them with salt and ground fennel, then on the meat spread marjoram and parsley, with finely diced lard, and sprinkle aromatic herbs over the slices and immediately roll them up and put them on a spit near the fire, taking care that they do not dry out too much. When they are cooked serve them immediately to your guests.

3/4 lb veal (leg or rump: lean)
1 t salt
1 t fennel seed, ground
2 t fresh marjoram
3 T parsley
1 T lard
aromatic herbs: 1/4 t dry thyme, 2 T fresh basil

Chop parsley, marjoram and basil coarsely. Sprinkle salt and fennel onto the meat slices, dot with lard, sprinkle on herbs. Roll meat up in the direction that the fibers run, since otherwise it will tear. Bake 40 minutes at 350deg.

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Alows de Beef or de Motoun

Two Fifteenth Century p. 40

Take fayre Bef of + e quyschons, and motoun of + e bottes, and kytte in + e maner of Stekys; + an take raw Percely, and Oynonys smal y-scredde, and yolkys of Eyroun so+ e hard, and Marow or swette, and hew alle + es to-geder smal; + an caste + er-on poudere of Gyngere and Saffroun, and tolle hem to-gederys with + in hond, and lay hem on + e Stekys al a-brode, and caste Salt + er-to; + en rolle to-gederys, and putte hem on a round spete, and roste hem til + ey ben y-now; + an lay hem in a dysshe, and pore + er-on Vynegre and a lityl verious, and pouder Pepir + er-on y-now, and Gyngere, and Canelle, and a fewe yolkys of hard Eyroun y-kremyd + er-on; and serue forth.

1/2 lb lamb or beef
1/3 c chopped parsley
1/4 c finely chopped onion
2 hard-boiled egg yolks
1 T lamb fat or marrow
1/4 t ginger
4 threads saffron
salt
1/4 c vinegar
pinch pepper
1/4 t more ginger
1/4 t cinnamon
1 more hard-boiled egg yolk

Meat is sliced 1/4" thick; slices should be about 6" by 2". Spread with parsley, etc. mixture, roll up on skewers or toothpicks, broil about 10-12 minutes until brown. Mix sauce and pour over. Makes 6-8 rolls 2" long and 1" to 1 1/2" in diameter.

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Cow's Meat

Anthimus p. 11

Cow's meat however, steamed and cooked in a casserole should be eaten, in a gravy. First, it should be put to soak in one water, and then it should cook in a reasonable quantity of fresh water, without adding any water as it cooks, and when the meat is cooked, put in a vessel about a half mouthful of vinegar, and put in the heads of leeks and a little pennyroyal, parsley root, or fennel, and let it cook for an hour; then add honey to half the quantity of the vinegar, or sweeter according to taste. Then let it cook on a slow fire, shaking the pot frequently with the hands, and the sauce will well season the meat. Then grind: pepper fifty grains; costum and spikenard, a half solidus each; cloves, one tremissis. All these grind well in an earthen mortar, add a little wine, and when well ground, put into a vessel and stir well, so that before it is taken from the fire it may warm up a little and put its strength into the gravy. Moreover, where there is honey, or must, or caroenum, put in one of these as it says above, and do not let it cook in a copper kettle, but in an earthen vessel; it makes flavor the better.

1 3/4 lb beef
3 c water
3 leeks: 1 1/2 lb as bought, 3/4 lb used
1 t fennel seed (or pennyroyal or parsley root)
4 t vinegar
2 t honey
1/2 t pepper
costum?
spikenard: 1 t dried lavender measured uncrushed
1/2 t cloves
2 T wine

Cut beef into 1" pieces. Bring beef and water to a boil, turn down heat to low and cook covered 45 minutes. Wash and slice leeks, using only the half starting at the white end. Grind fennel seed and add vinegar, honey, leeks and fennel to stew. Cook uncovered on moderate heat one hour. Grind pepper, cloves, and lavender together, add wine and grind some more. Put this with stew and cook ten minutes and serve.

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Tartlettes

Curye on Inglysch p. 109 (Form of Cury no. 51)

Take pork ysode and grynde it small with safroun; medle it with ayren, and raisouns of coraunce, and powdour fort and salt, and make a foile of dowhgh and close the fars + erinne. Cast + e tartletes in a panne with faire water boillyng and salt; take of the clene flessh with oute ayren & boile it in gode broth. Cast + er powdour douce and salt, and messe the tartletes in disshes & helde the sewe + eronne.

1/2 lb pork
15 threads saffron
3 eggs
1/2 c currents
1 t powder fort (see introduction p. 5)
3/4 t salt
1/4 lb more pork
2 c chicken broth

dough:
3 c flour
1 1/8 c water
1 t powder douce (see below)
1/8 t more salt

Cut up pork in slices 1/2" thick, boil about 10 minutes in 6 c water, take out and cut slices into about 1"x2" pieces. Grind saffron in mortar. Combine pork and saffron in food processor and grind. Then add eggs, currents, powder fort and salt and combine. Roll out dough in 3 11"x14" pieces. Make into ravioli about 2"x2", stuffed with the pork mixture. Put 3 quarts water, 1/2 t salt in a pot, bring to a boil. Put in tartlettes, boil about 15 minutes and remove from water. Meanwhile grind rest of pork fine and cook in broth with salt and power douce (by our interpretation, 4 parts sugar to 2 of cinnamon to 1 of ginger) about 15 minutes. Pour this over the tartelettes (including the broth) and serve.

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Chopped Liver

Du Fait de Cuisine no. 61

For the chopped liver: he who has the charge of the chopped liver should take kids' livers-and if there are not enough of those of kids use those of veal-and clean and wash them very well, then put them to cook well and properly; and, being cooked, let him take them out onto fair and clean boards and, being drained, chop them very fine and, being well chopped, let him arrange that he has fair lard well and properly melted in fair and clean pans, then put in to fry the said chopped liver and sauté it well and properly. And then arrange that he has a great deal of eggs and break them into fair dishes and beat them all together; and put in spices, that is white ginger, grains of paradise, saffron, and salt in good proportion, then put all of this gently into the said pans with the said liver which is being fried while continually stirring and mixing with a good spoon in the pans until it is well cooked and dried out and beginning to brown. And then when this comes to the sideboard arrange the aforesaid heads [reference to preceding recipe in the original] on fair serving dishes, and on each dish next to the heads put and arrange the aforesaid chopped liver.

1/2 lb calf liver
2 T lard
3 eggs
1/4 t ginger
1/4 t grains of paradise
8 threads saffron, ground
1/4 t salt

Simmer liver for about 5 minutes, drain, then chop very fine. Beat the eggs, add spices. Melt the lard, add liver and eggs, stir constantly until cooked.

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Picadinho de Carne de Vaca: Beef Hash

Portuguese p. P-2

Wash tender beef and chop fine. Next add cloves, saffron, pepper, ginger, minced green herbs, onion juice, vinegar and salt. Saute it all in oil and let cook until water dries up. Serve on slices of bread.

2 lb beef
1/4 t cloves
20 threads saffron
1 t pepper
1 t ginger
4 t onion juice
2 T wine vinegar
3/4 t salt
2 T oil
6 slices bread

green herbs:
4 t green coriander
2 t mint
1/4 c parsley

Chop meat to a little coarser than hamburger, using a food processor; mix everything but oil. The herbs chosen are those mentioned commonly in other recipes in this cookbook. Heat oil over moderately high heat in a large frying pan and add beef; cook about 20 minutes, stirring constantly until water comes out of the meat, then occasionally until water dries up. We considered it done when it still looked moist but there was no longer standing liquid. Serve over bread or toast; also good on rice.

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Corat

Curye on Inglysch p. 100 (Forme of Cury no. 14)

Take the noumbles of calf, swyne, or of shepe; perboile hem and kerue hem to dyce. Cast hem in gode broth and do + erto erbes, grene chybolles smale yhewe; see+ it tendre, and lye with yolkes of eyren. Do + erto verious, safroun, powdour douce and salt, and serue it forth.

1 lb calf heart
1 10 oz can conc. beef broth + 1 can water
6 oz scallions
8 egg yolks

"powder douce":
2 t sugar
2 t cinnamon

"herbs":
4 oz spinach
4 oz turnip greens
1/4 c verjuice
12 threads saffron
1/2 t ginger
1 t salt

Parboil heart in 4 c water: bring water to boil, add heart, bring back to boil, total time about 4 minutes. Drain. Cut heart in 1/2"-1" cubes. Put with broth and chopped washed greens, simmer about 20 minutes. Stir in beaten egg yolks, turn off heat. Add verjuice, saffron (crushed into water), spices, salt, and serve it forth.

Numbles means innards. We suspect the title of the recipe is derived from the French word for "heart" and therefore use heart, but it is also good made with kidney.

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Egredouncye

Two Fifteenth Century p. 31/58

Take Porke or Beef, whe+ er + e likey, & leche it + inne + werte; + en broyle it broun a litel, & + en mynce it lyke Venyson; choppe it in sewe, + en caste it in a potte & do + er-to Freyssh brothe; take Erbis, Onynonys, Percely & Sawge, & o+ er gode erbis, + en lye it vppe with brede; take Pepir & Safroun, pouder Canel, Vynegre, or Eysel Wyne, Bro+ e an Salt, & let yet boyle to-gederys, tylle + ey ben y-now, & + an serue it forth rennyng.

1/2 lb pork or beef
1 1/2 c beef broth-conc. diluted
1 small onion = 2 oz
1 oz fresh parsley
5 leaves fresh sage
1/4 c bread crumbs
1/8 t pepper
6 threads saffron
1/3 c more broth
1/2 t salt

other herbs:
1/2 t rosemary
1/4 t oregano
1/4 t cinnamon
2 T wine vinegar

Chop meat and then brown in a frying pan with chopped onions; put with herbs and broth and bring to a boil, adding bread crumbs as it comes to a boil; add remaining ingredients and simmer for about five minutes, then remove from heat. Good over rice.

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Boiled Meats Ordinary

The English Huswife p. 47

You shall take a racke of mutton cut into peeces, or a leg of mutton cut in peeces: for this meat and these joints, are the best, Although any other joint, or any fresh beefe will likewise make good pottage: and having washt your meat well, put it into a cleane pot with faire water, and set it on the fire: then take violet leaves, endive, succory (chiccory?), strawberie leaves, spinage, langdebeefe, marygold flowers, Scallions, and a little persly, and chop them very small together, then take halfe so much oatmeale well beaten as there is herbes, and mix it with the herbes, and chop all very wel together: then when the pot is ready to boile, skumme it very wel and then put in your herbes: And so let it boil with a quicke fire, stirring the meat oft in the pot, till the meat be boild enough, and that the hearbes and water mixt together without any separation, which will be after the consumption of more then a third part: then season them with salt, and serve them up with the meat either with sippets or without.

2 lb boned lamb
5 c water
3 c oatmeal
1 1/2 t salt

1 1/4 lb mixed greens = 6 c chopped and pressed down (scallions, endive lettuce, Belgian endive, parsley, spinach, and mustard greens)

Cut up lamb into bite-sized pieces. Put in a pot with water, bring to a boil. Chop greens fine, mix with oatmeal and add. Simmer about 1 hour.

Variants:

If you want the pottage green but without visible herbs, beat the oatmeal and herbs in a stone mortar with a wooden pestle. Strain it, using some warm water from the pot. If you want it without herbs, use lots of onions and more oatmeal than before.

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Pottage with Whole Herbs

English Huswife, book 2, p. 48

Take mutton, veal or kid, break the bones but do not cut up the flesh, wash, put in a pot with water. When ready to boil and well skimmed, add a handful or two of small oatmeal. Take whole lettuce, the best inner leaves, whole spinach, whole endive, whole chiccory, whole leaves of colaflorry [cauliflower?] or the inward parts of white cabbage, with two or three onions. Put all into the pot until done. Season with salt and as much verjuice as will only turn the taste of the pottage; serve up covering meat with whole herbs and addorning the dish with sippets.

mutton, veal, or kid: 1 lb veal
1 1/2 c oatmeal
3 1/2 oz lettuce
generous handful spinach (~ 1.5 oz)
1 small endive (2 oz)
2 oz chiccory
5 flowerettes cauliflower
2 small onions
1/2 T salt
verjuice: 1 T wine vinegar
6 slices of toast (sippets)

Cook veal whole about 1/2 hour in enough water to cover. The vegetables were added as soon as the water came to a boil and was skimmed.

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